2018年山东专升本英语语法知识点汇总(二)


18. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。

例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

19. 原因状从:as 的用法。

例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range.

20. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president.

原因状从: in that的用法。

例句:Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

21. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。

例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus.

22.同位语从句:同位语从句在句中作A同位语,对被修饰名词的内容予以解释说明。同位语的特点是:抽象名词在前,表达具体内容的从句在后。常见的名词包括: assumption假定/belief看法/ conclusion结论/ doubt怀疑等。

 例句:The suggestion that we should develop the natural resources in the region has been discussed. 关于我们应该开发本地区资源的建议已经讨论过了。

23.现在完成时:表示过去延续到现在的动作或状态。具体来说,这种用法是表示开始于过去的动作一直持续到现在,而且还可能继续持续下去。谓语动词一般为延续性动词。 

例句:An old woman walked out into the middle of the street. The police man yelled to her, “Don’t you know what it means when I hold up my hand?” The lady said, “Sure I do. I have been a schoolteacher for 28 years now.” 一个老妇人走到了马路中央,这时,一位交警朝着她嚷道:“我都把手举起来了,你难道还不知道什么意思吗?”老太太说:“我当然知道,我都做了28 年的老师了。”

24. 时间状从:not…until… 用法。

例句:The students didn’t stop talking until the teacher came in.

25. it做形式主语,句子做逻辑主语:如果主语太长,常用代词 it 作形式主语,将真正的主语从句置于句尾,以保持句式的平衡。

例句:It makes no difference what you read or study if you can’t remember it. 如果你记不住,那么你读什么或者学什么都不重要了。

26. 现在分词短语作状语:

(1)现在分词作时间状语。

例句:There are several things to consider when buying fresh foods. 当购买新鲜食品时,有几个事情要考虑。

(2)现在分词作条件状语。

例句:Working hard,you will succeed. 如果努力工作,你将会成功。

(3)现在分词作伴随状语。

例句:All night long he lay awake, thinking of the problem. 他整夜躺在床上睡不着,思考着那个问题。

(4)现在分词作方式状语。

例句:Please answer the question using another way. 请用另一种方法回答问题。

(5)现在分词作原因状语。

例句:Not knowing her address, I can’t write to her.由于不知道她的地址,我没法给她写信。

(6)现在分词作结果状语。

例句:Possessing a car gives a much greater degree of mobility, enabling the driver to move around freely. 拥有汽车使机动程度更高,使司机能自由自在地往来各地。

(7)现在分词作让步状语。

例句:Although working from morning till night his father didn’t get enough food.虽然他父亲从早到晚拼命干,但是还是挣不够吃的。

27. 情态动词表推测

(1)对现在、将来情况的推测,用情态动词+动词原形

对现在、将来情况的肯定推测:must+动词原形

对现在、将来情况的否定推测:can’t +动词原形

对现在、将来情况的可能推测:may/might +动词原形

例句:What is he doing?

He must be sleeping./He can’t be reading./ He may/might be reading but I’m not sure.

(2)对过去情况的推测,用情态动词+have done sth.

对过去情况的肯定推测:must+have done sth.

对过去情况的否定推测:can’t +have done sth.

对过去情况的可能推测:may/might +have done sth.

例句:It must / may / might / have rained last night. The ground is wet.

The door is locked. He cannot / may ( might ) not have been at home.

28. 部分倒装:否定词前置

(1)hardly/scarcely…when…

例句:Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

她刚一出门,一个学生就来拜访她。

(2)no sooner…than…

例句:No sooner had the game begun than it began to rain heavily.

比赛刚一开始就下起了雨。

29. 动词 ing 形式作独立主格结构:逻辑主语和主句主语不一致时采用。

例句:Time permitting, we will go for a picnic tomorrow.(=f time permits, we will go for a

picnic tomorrow.) 如果时间允许,我们明天会去野餐。

30. even if 引导的让步状语从句:“即使”。

例句: Even if we achieve great success in our work, we should not be proud.

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